Mr Isam Bitar

Mr Isam Bitar


I started my doctorate in 2019 on the subject of using game theory to model and control the interaction between automated vehicles and other road users. This involves the analysis and development of game-theoretic mathematical models to describe, predict, understand and prescribe the interaction between autonomous vehicles and non-machine road users in dense urban areas. The main aim is to ensure all interactions are completed safely and efficiently, in that the probability of collisions is kept to a minimum while ensuring efficient travel for the automated vehicle and others. This requires the study of human road users’ behaviour from a game-theoretic point of view. Such models are then used to inform automated vehicles’ behaviour and dictate the interaction between the automated vehicle and other road users.

In 2013, I was awarded a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Civil Engineering from An-Najah National University in Palestine, where I focussed on developing solutions to increasing traffic delays on a local urban trunk road based on network modelling and traffic simulation. I went on after that to complete an Master of Science in Transport Planning and Engineering from the University of Leeds in 2015. In 2018, I obtained a Postgraduate Diploma in Engineering Metrology from the University of Nottingham. I have also taken up two positions in the transport and highways engineering sector within that timeframe, including my current position as a design engineer at Kier Design Services. 

In 2017, I presented on the subject of through-thickness strength of 3D-printed carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics at the 2017 International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium in Austin, Texas as part of my engineering metrology studies. I also co-authored a paper and poster on the optimisation of thermoplastic polyurethane as a material for desktop laser sintering for the same conference.


Professional Memberships

Member, The Chartered Institution of Highways & Transportation (CIHT).

Interim Registration for Chartered Engineer, Engineering Council.



Bitar, I., Aboulkhair, N. and Leach, R. 2017. The application of composite through-thickness assessment to additively manufactured structures In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium. Austin, Texas, pp. 616-32.

Richards, I., Garabet, T., Bitar, I. and Salmon, F. 2017. Optimising thermoplastic polyurethane for desktop laser sintering In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium. Austin, Texas, pp. 785-98.

Research interests

I am interested in the development, validation and application of game-theoretic concepts to control and describe the interaction between automated vehicles and other road users. Additionally, I am a member of the Human Factors and Safety research group at the Institute for Transport Studies. Key research areas include:

  • Game theory
  • Autonomous vehicles
  • Driving simulation
  • Road user behaviour
  • Road user interaction


  • PGDip, Engineering Metrology, University of Nottingham
  • MSc, Transport Planning and Engineering, University of Leeds
  • BEng (Hons), Civil Engineering, An-Najah National University

Research groups and institutes

  • Human Factors and Safety
  • Spatial Modelling and Dynamics