Aerosols and Climate

Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP)

GLOMAP is a flexible aerosol microphysics model. There are two GLOMAP flavours: GLOMAP-bin is a comprehensive sectional (bin) model and GLOMAP-mode is a faster modal version. GLOMAP-bin was developed as a full-complexity model able to calculate the details of the aerosol number size distribution on a global scale. GLOMAP-mode was developed later as a faster code for inclusion in climate and weather models where computational efficiency is paramount.

Throughout the development, we have maintained consistency between the two models, allowing us to adjust the performance of the modal model, as decribed in our bin versus mode comparison paper.

GLOMAP in different host models

GLOMAP is built into several host models, enabling us to tackle a wide range of science problems:

  • TOMCAT Global Chemical Transport Model: The TOMCAT CTM is a global chemistry and aerosol model that uses analysed meteorology to transport and remove the aerosol without including feedbacks on the weather and climate. We use it as a fast model to understand aerosol processes and compare to observations. Most of our aerosol research to date has been done with GLOMAP-TOMCAT, using both the bin and mode versions.
  • HadGEM-UKCA: UKCA is a chemistry-aerosol-climate model built on the Met Office Unified Model (UM). Different configurations of the same model are used across all time and space scales. So far, GLOMAP-mode has been built into the global configuration of the UM for climate research (the so-called HadGEM model used by the Met Office and UK community for its climate prediction). We are now working with the Met Office to use the model also for weather research at very high resolution.
  • ECMWF-IFS: The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecasting System is the comprehensive earth-system model developed at ECMWF and the basis for all the data assimilation and forecasting activities. GLOMAP-mode has been implemented in the IFS as part of the EU MACC project to produce operational aerosol products.

History of GLOMAP development


  1. Spracklen, DV; Pringle, KJ; Carslaw, KS; Chipperfield, MP; Mann, GW (2005) A global off-line model of size-resolved aerosol microphysics: I. Model development and prediction of aerosol properties, ATMOS CHEM PHYS, 5, pp2227-2252. The first GLOMAP paper and a basic description of how the model is constructed
  2. Spracklen, DV; Pringle, KJ; Carslaw, KS; Chipperfield, MP; Mann, GW (2005) A global off-line model of size-resolved aerosol microphysics: II. Identification of key uncertainties, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 5, pp3233-3250. Description of some early sensitivity calculations with the model
  3. Spracklen, DV; Carslaw, KS; Kulmala, M; Kerminen, VM; Mann, GW; Sihto, SL (2006) The contribution of boundary layer nucleation events to total particle concentrations on regional and global scales, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(12), pp5631-5648. Boundary layer nucleation. Also describes for the first time the additional aerosol components BC, OC etc.
  4. Spracklen, DV; Pringle, KJ; Carslaw, KS; Mann, GW; Manktelow, PT; Heintzenberg, J (2007) Evaluation of a global aerosol microphysics model against size-resolved particle statistics in the marine atmosphere, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7(8), pp2073-2090. Marine aerosol evaluation
  5. Korhonen, H; Carslaw, KS; Spracklen, DV; Mann, GW; Woodhouse, MT (2008) Influence of oceanic dimethyl sulfide emissions on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and seasonality over the remote Southern Hemisphere oceans: A global model study, J GEOPHYS RES-ATMOS, 113(D15), doi:10.1029/2007JD009718 First paper with ultrafine sea spray emissions
  6. Spracklen, DV; Carslaw, KS; Kulmala, M; Kerminen, VM; Sihto, SL; Riipinen, I; Merikanto, J; Mann, GW; Chipperfield, MP; Wiedensohler, A; Birmili, W; Lihavainen, H (2008) Contribution of particle formation to global cloud condensation nuclei concentrations, GEOPHYS RES LETT, 35(6), . doi:10.1029/2007GL033038 CCN calculation according to k-kohler theory 
  7. Pringle, KJ; Carslaw, KS; Spracklen, DV; Mann, GM; Chipperfield, MP (2009) The relationship between aerosol and cloud drop number concentrations in a global aerosol microphysics model, ATMOS CHEM PHYS, 9(12), pp4131-4144. Cloud drop number calculation
  8. Manktelow et al., ACPD 2009: The impact of dust on sulfate aerosol, CN and CCN during an East Asian dust storm. Dust model


  1. Manktelow, PT; Mann, GW; Carslaw, KS; Spracklen, DV; Chipperfield, MP (2007) Regional and global trends in sulfate since the 1980s, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, . doi:10.1029/2006GL028668 Sketchy first description of mode 
  2. Woodhouse, MT; Mann, GW; Carslaw, KS; Boucher, O (2008) New Directions: The impact of oceanic iron fertilisation on cloud condensation nuclei, ATMOS ENVIRON, 42(22), pp5728-5730. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.05.005. DMS-CCN geoengineering
  3. Mann, GW et al. (2010) Description and evaluation of GLOMAP-mode: a modal global aerosol microphysics model for the UKCA composition-climate model GLOMAP-mode documentation paper.
  4. Mann, GW et al. (2012) Intercomparison of modal and sectional aerosol microphysics representations within the same 3-D global chemical transport model. GLOMAP-mode versus GLOMAP-bin and evaluated against observations.